Special Issue "Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Micronutrients and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 November 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Deborah Agostini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino, Urbino, Italy
Interests: molecular biology; inflammation; cancer; microbiota; nutrition
Dr. Sabrina Donati Zeppa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino, Urbino, Italy
Interests: nutrition; food supplement; sport nutrition; microbiota; molecular biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The important role of Vitamin D in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, bone biology, immune function, inflammation. and cell growth is well known, but there is a growing interest in its potential effect on skeletal muscle mass and strength by virtue of its action on muscle cell differentiation, metabolism, and function. Vitamin D also plays a role in the regulation and uptake of calcium in muscle cells, which is important for muscle strength, contractile activity, mitochondrial function, insulin sensitivity, and protein synthesis. This activity is both direct and indirect and involves genomic and nongenomic pathways.

Skeletal muscle affects human health and disease. Aging is associated with a decrease in muscle mass and function (sarcopenia), which is associated with a loss of independence and reduced quality of life. The gut microbiota, the bacteria, archaea, viruses, and eukaryotic microbes residing in the gastrointestinal tract are emerging as potential contributors to age-associated-changes in muscle size, composition, and function.

This Special Issue will publish either manuscripts describing original research or analytical reviews on vitamin D and musculoskeletal health, with a focus on other factors playing a role in this relationship, such as diet, ageing, diseases, gut microbiota, and exercise.

Dr. Deborah Agostini
Dr. Sabrina Donati Zeppa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Musculoskeletal health
  • Diet
  • Aging
  • Gut microbiota
  • Exercise

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Article
In Vitro Non-Genomic Effects of Calcifediol on Human Preosteoblastic Cells
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4227; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13124227 - 25 Nov 2021
Viewed by 316
Abstract
Several recent studies have demonstrated that the direct precursor of vitamin D3, the calcifediol [25(OH)D3], through the binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), is able to regulate the expression of many genes involved in several cellular processes. [...] Read more.
Several recent studies have demonstrated that the direct precursor of vitamin D3, the calcifediol [25(OH)D3], through the binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), is able to regulate the expression of many genes involved in several cellular processes. Considering that itself may function as a VDR ligand, although with a lower affinity, respect than the active form of vitamin D, we have assumed that 25(OH)D3 by binding the VDR could have a vitamin’s D3 activity such as activating non-genomic pathways, and in particular we selected mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue (hADMSCs) for the in vitro assessment of the intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in response to 25(OH)D3. Our result reveals the ability of 25(OH)D3 to activate rapid, non-genomic pathways, such as an increase of intracellular Ca2+ levels, similar to what observed with the biologically active form of vitamin D3. hADMSCs loaded with Fluo-4 AM exhibited a rapid and sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration as a result of exposure to 10−5 M of 25(OH)D3. In this work, we show for the first time the in vitro ability of 25(OH)D3 to induce a rapid increase of intracellular Ca2+ levels in hADMSCs. These findings represent an important step to better understand the non-genomic effects of vitamin D3 and its role in endocrine system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Article
Could Vitamin D3 Deficiency Influence Malocclusion Development?
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13062122 - 21 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
The abnormal growth of the craniofacial bone leads to skeletal and dental defects, which result in the presence of malocclusions. Not all causes of malocclusion have been explained. In the development of skeletal abnormalities, attention is paid to general deficiencies, including of vitamin [...] Read more.
The abnormal growth of the craniofacial bone leads to skeletal and dental defects, which result in the presence of malocclusions. Not all causes of malocclusion have been explained. In the development of skeletal abnormalities, attention is paid to general deficiencies, including of vitamin D3 (VD3), which causes rickets. Its chronic deficiency may contribute to skeletal malocclusion. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of VD3 deficiency on the development of malocclusions. The examination consisted of a medical interview, oral examination, an alginate impression and radiological imaging, orthodontic assessment, and taking a venous blood sample for VD3 level testing. In about 42.1% of patients, the presence of a skeletal defect was found, and in 46.5% of patients, dentoalveolar malocclusion. The most common defect was transverse constriction of the maxilla with a narrow upper arch (30.7%). The concentration of vitamin 25 (OH) D in the study group was on average 23.6 ± 10.5 (ng/mL). VD3 deficiency was found in 86 subjects (75.4%). Our research showed that VD3 deficiency could be one of an important factor influencing maxillary development. Patients had a greater risk of a narrowed upper arch (OR = 4.94), crowding (OR = 4.94) and crossbite (OR = 6.16). Thus, there was a link between the deficiency of this hormone and the underdevelopment of the maxilla. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
Article
Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Addition to Aerobic Exercise Training in Obese Women with Perceived Myalgia: A Single-Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1819; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13061819 - 27 May 2021
Viewed by 1664
Abstract
Obese women were more susceptible to myalgia because of their significantly lower vitamin D concentrations; the present study investigated the efficacy of vitamin D in addition to an aerobic interval training in the management of obese women with myalgia. Forty-five obese women with [...] Read more.
Obese women were more susceptible to myalgia because of their significantly lower vitamin D concentrations; the present study investigated the efficacy of vitamin D in addition to an aerobic interval training in the management of obese women with myalgia. Forty-five obese women with vitamin D deficiency and myalgia (30 to 40 years old) were assigned randomly into three equal groups. Group A received an aerobic interval training with vitamin D supplementation, Group B received vitamin D supplementation only, and Group C received aerobic interval training only; participants in all groups were on calorie deficient diets. The study outcomes were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for Pain Evaluation, serum vitamin D level, and Cooper 12-Minute Walk Test for Functional Capacity Evaluation, while the Short-Form Health Survey (SF) was used for assessment of quality of life. We detected a significant improvement in pain intensity level, serum vitamin D level, and quality of life in all groups with significant difference between Group A and groups B and C. We also detected a significant improvement in functional capacity in groups A and C, with no significant change in Group B. Aerobic interval training with vitamin D supplementation was more effective for the management of obese women with perceived myalgia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Article
The Positive Impact of Vitamin D on Glucocorticoid-Dependent Skeletal Muscle Atrophy
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 936; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030936 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1041
Abstract
(1) The study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D3 supplementation would positively affect rats with glucocorticoids-induced muscle atrophy as measured by skeletal muscle mass in two experimental conditions: chronic dexamethasone (DEX) administration and a model of the chronic stress response. (2) The [...] Read more.
(1) The study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D3 supplementation would positively affect rats with glucocorticoids-induced muscle atrophy as measured by skeletal muscle mass in two experimental conditions: chronic dexamethasone (DEX) administration and a model of the chronic stress response. (2) The study lasted 28 consecutive days and was performed on 45 male Wistar rats randomly divided into six groups. These included two groups treated by abdominal injection of DEX at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day supplemented with vegetable oil (DEX PL; n = 7) or with vitamin D3 600 IU/kg/day (DEX SUP; n = 8), respectively, and a control group treated with an abdominal injection of saline (CON; n = 6). In addition, there were two groups of rats chronically stressed by cold water immersion (1 hour/day in a glass box with 1-cm-deep ice/water mixture; temperature ~4 °C), which were supplemented with vegetable oil as a placebo (STR PL; n = 9) or vitamin D3 at 600 IU/kg/day (STR SUP; n = 9). The last group was of sham-stressed rats (SHM; n = 6). Blood, soleus, extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, and quadriceps femoris muscles were collected and weighed. The heart, liver, spleen, and thymus were removed and weighed immediately after sacrifice. The plasma corticosterone (CORT) and vitamin D3 metabolites were measured. (3) We found elevated CORT levels in both cold water-immersed groups; however, they did not alter body and muscle weight. Body weight and muscle loss occurred in groups with exogenously administered DEX, with the exception of the soleus muscle in rats supplemented with vitamin D3. Decreased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations in DEX-treated rats were observed, and the cold water immersion did not affect vitamin D3 levels. (4) Our results indicate that DEX-induced muscle loss was abolished in rats supplemented with vitamin D3, especially in the soleus muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Article
Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Handgrip Strength, Nutritional Status and T2DM in Community-Dwelling Older Mexican Women: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 736; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13030736 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 927
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between handgrip strength, nutritional status and vitamin D deficiency in Mexican community-dwelling older women. A cross sectional study in women ≥ 60 years-old was performed. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between handgrip strength, nutritional status and vitamin D deficiency in Mexican community-dwelling older women. A cross sectional study in women ≥ 60 years-old was performed. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by a quantitative immunoassay technique. Handgrip strength was assessed using a dynamometer, while nutritional status was assessed through the Full Mini Nutritional Assessment (Full-MNA). A total of 116 women participated in the study, their mean age was 70.3 ± 5.8 years; 49.1% of the study group had plasma 25(OH)D levels lower than 40 nmol/L [16 ng/mL]. Meanwhile, 28.45% of participants had low handgrip strength (<16 kg), and 23.1% were identified at risk of malnutrition/malnourished according with Full-MNA score. Women with 25(OH)D deficiency (<40 nmol/L [16 ng/mL]) were more likely to have low handgrip strength (OR = 2.64, p = 0.025) compared with those with higher 25(OH)D values. Additionally, being malnourished or at risk of malnutrition (OR = 2.53, p = 0.045) or having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (OR = 2.92, p = 0.044) was also associated with low 25(OH)D. The prevalence of low plasma 25(OH)D concentrations was high among Mexican active older women. Low handgrip strength, being at risk of malnutrition/malnourished, or diagnosed with T2DM was also associated with Vitamin D deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
Article
Vitamin D Supplementation Improves the Effects of the Rehabilitation Program on Balance and Pressure Distribution in Patients after Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion-Randomized Control Trial
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3874; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12123874 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
Study Design: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Background: Surgery is effective in reducing pain intensity in patients with cervical disc disease. However, functional measurements demonstrated that the results have been not satisfactory enough. Thus, rehabilitation programs combined with the supplementation of vitamin D [...] Read more.
Study Design: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Background: Surgery is effective in reducing pain intensity in patients with cervical disc disease. However, functional measurements demonstrated that the results have been not satisfactory enough. Thus, rehabilitation programs combined with the supplementation of vitamin D could play an essential role. Methods. The study recruited 30 patients, aged 20 to 70 years, selected for anterior cervical interbody fusion (ACIF). The patients were randomly divided into the placebo (Pl) and vitamin D (3200 IU D3/day) supplemented groups. The functional tests limits of stability (LOS), risk of falls (RFT), postural stability (PST), Romberg test, and foot pressure distribution were performed before supplementation (BS—week 0), five weeks after supplementation (AS—week 5), four weeks after surgery (BSVR—week 9), and 10 weeks after supervising rehabilitation (ASVR—week 19). Results. The concentration of 25(OH)D3 in the serum, after five weeks of supplementation, was significantly increased, while the Pl group maintained the same. The RFT was significantly reduced after five weeks of vitamin D supplementation. Moreover, a further significant decrease was observed following rehabilitation. In the Pl group, no changes in the RFT were observed. The overall postural stability index (OSI), LOS, and the outcomes of the Romberg test significantly improved in both groups; however, the effects on the OSI were more pronounced in the D3 group at the end of the rehabilitation program. Conclusions. Our data suggest that vitamin D supplementation positively affected the rehabilitation program in patients implemented four weeks after ACIF by reducing the risk of falls and improving postural stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Article
Evaluation of Vitamin D Metabolism in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the Setting of Cholecalciferol Treatment
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3873; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12123873 - 18 Dec 2020
Viewed by 821
Abstract
In this prospective controlled study, we examined 25 adults with adequately controlled (HbA1c level < 8.0%) type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 49 conditionally healthy adults, intending to reveal the diversity of vitamin D metabolism in the setting of cholecalciferol intake at a [...] Read more.
In this prospective controlled study, we examined 25 adults with adequately controlled (HbA1c level < 8.0%) type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 49 conditionally healthy adults, intending to reveal the diversity of vitamin D metabolism in the setting of cholecalciferol intake at a therapeutic dose. All patients received a single dose (150,000 IU) of cholecalciferol aqueous solution orally. Laboratory assessments including serum vitamin D metabolites (25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 1,25(OH)2D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3), free 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as serum and urine biochemical parameters were performed before the intake and on Days 1, 3 and 7 after the administration. The studied groups had no significant differences in baseline parameters except that the patients with diabetes showed higher baseline levels of free 25(OH)D (p < 0.05). They also lacked a correlation between the measured and calculated free 25(OH)D in contrast to the patients from the control group (r = 0.41, p > 0.05 vs. r = 0.88, p < 0.05), possibly due to the glycosylation of binding proteins, which affects the affinity constant for 25(OH)D. The elevation of vitamin D levels after the administration of cholecalciferol was comparable in both groups, with slightly higher 25(OH)D3 levels observed in the diabetes group throughout the study since Day 1 (p < 0.05). Overall, our data indicate that in patients with adequately controlled T1DM 25(OH)D3 levels and the therapeutic response to cholecalciferol is similar to that in healthy individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Article
Vitamin D Supplementation Does Not Impact Resting Metabolic Rate, Body Composition and Strength in Vitamin D Sufficient Physically Active Adults
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12103111 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Supplementation with the most efficient form of Vitamin D (VitD3) results in improvements in energy metabolism, muscle mass and strength in VitD deficient individuals. Whether similar outcomes occur in VitD sufficient individuals’ remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to [...] Read more.
Supplementation with the most efficient form of Vitamin D (VitD3) results in improvements in energy metabolism, muscle mass and strength in VitD deficient individuals. Whether similar outcomes occur in VitD sufficient individuals’ remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of VitD3 supplementation on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and strength in VitD sufficient physically active young adults. Participants completed pre-supplementation testing before being matched for sunlight exposure and randomly allocated in a counterbalanced manner to the VitD3 or placebo group. Following 12 weeks of 50 IU/kg body-mass VitD3 supplementation, participants repeated the pre-supplementation testing. Thirty-one adults completed the study (19 females and 12 males; mean ± standard deviation (SD); age = 26.6 ± 4.9 years; BMI = 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2). The VitD group increased serum total 25(OH)D by 30 nmol/L while the placebo group decreased total serum concentration by 21 nmol/L, reaching 123 (51) and 53 (42.2) nmol/L, respectively. There were no significant changes in muscle strength or power, resting metabolic rate and body composition over the 12-week period. Physically active young adults that are VitD sufficient have demonstrated that no additional physiological effects of achieving supraphysiological serum total 25(OH)D concentrations after VitD3 supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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Review

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Review
Association between Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Pathway-Related Genes, Vitamin D Status, Muscle Mass and Function: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(9), 3109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu13093109 - 04 Sep 2021
Viewed by 968
Abstract
An association between vitamin D level and muscle-related traits has been frequently reported. Vitamin D level is dependent on various factors such as sunlight exposure and nutrition. But also on genetic factors. We, therefore, hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the vitamin [...] Read more.
An association between vitamin D level and muscle-related traits has been frequently reported. Vitamin D level is dependent on various factors such as sunlight exposure and nutrition. But also on genetic factors. We, therefore, hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the vitamin D pathway-related genes could contribute to muscle mass and function via an impact on vitamin D level. However, the integration of studies investigating these issues is still missing. Therefore, this review aimed to systematically identify and summarize the available evidence on the association between SNPs within vitamin D pathway-related genes and vitamin D status as well as various muscle traits in healthy adults. The review has been registered on PROSPERO and was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. In total, 77 studies investigating 497 SNPs in 13 different genes were included, with significant associations being reported for 59 different SNPs. Variations in GC, CYP2R1, VDR, and CYP24A1 genes were reported most frequently, whereby especially SNPs in the GC (rs2282679, rs4588, rs1155563, rs7041) and CYP2R1 genes (rs10741657, rs10766197, rs2060793) were confirmed to be associated with vitamin D level in more than 50% of the respective studies. Various muscle traits have been investigated only in relation to four different vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms (rs7975232, rs2228570, rs1544410, and rs731236). Interestingly, all of them showed only very low confirmation rates (6–17% of the studies). In conclusion, this systematic review presents one of the most comprehensive updates of the association of SNPs in vitamin D pathway-related genes with vitamin D status and muscle traits in healthy adults. It might be used for selecting candidate SNPs for further studies, but also for personalized strategies in identifying individuals at risk for vitamin D deficiency and eventually for determining a potential response to vitamin D supplementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D, Diet and Musculoskeletal Health)
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