Special Issue "Climate Change and Food Insecurity"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Christopher Robin Bryant
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Environmental Design and Rural Development, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
Interests: the adaptation of human activities to climatic change, especially agriculture; sustainable community development; rural development; land use planning; strategic management/planning of development including agriculture; community participation; the dynamics and planning of urban agriculture; including pioneer work on adaptation behavior under stressful conditions; sustainable transport policies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Andrea Vitali
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture and Forest Sciences DAFNE, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy
Interests: impact of climate change on livestock systems; livestock adaptation and mitigation to climate change; environmental sustainability of livestock systems; animal welfare; food security
Dr. Azzeddine Madani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Department of Human Sciences, Khemis-Miliana University, Khemis-Miliana 44225, Algeria
Interests: sustainable transport policies; adaptation to climate change in land transport; adaptation of cities to climate change; transport and town planning relationship; mobility; fight against traffic accidents; health geography; smart and green cities; pedestrian and bicycle mobility; new forms of governance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food Insecurity has rapidly become a major issue in many countries in the last 10 years. Food Insecurity has impacted many people in many contexts, such as Developing countries for example in many African states, but as well we can find significant food insecurity issues in many developed countries, sometimes in some of the rural territories located far from major cities but as well Food Insecure populations embedded in urban contexts within cities. Food Insecurity is linked to accessibility (costs and ease of access to healthy foodstuffs) and inevitably to neighborhoods in cities and rural territories where the populations are poor. Climate change can have major effects upon food production and can potentially reduce food production to the point where local populations are in danger of not having access to enough foodstuff at reasonable costs.This Special Issue is interested in a number of issues: how has climate change had major negative impacts on Food Insecurity either in urban neighborhoods or in rural agricultural territories.  Furthermore, what are the ways in which this Food Insecurity created by climate change can be remedied, e.g. through modifications in the manner in which foodstuffs (crops as well as foodstuffs of animal origin) are produced, how social organizations can  create conditions in which healthy foodstuffs can be made available to poor communities in cities or in rural territories by involving reasonably well-off populations contributing to lowering the prices of foodstuffs made available to poor populations. Many of the initiatives can be created by groups of citizens and by groups of farmers who wish to contribute to reducing Food Insecurity created by climate change and by other factors such as rising costs of foodstuffs to poor consumers.

Prof. Dr. Christopher R. Bryant
Prof. Dr. Andrea Vitali
Dr. Azzeddine Madani
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • food insecurity
  • poor populations in rural territories
  • poor neighborhoods in many cities
  • climate change and its negative effects upon the volume of healthy foodstuffs available
  • climate change and its potential to modify the production of accessible foodstuffs cost wise and simply from the perspective of the volume of healthy foodstuffs
  • solutions to increasing the production of healthy foodstuffs despite climate change
  • the roles of different actors such as farmers, urban gardeners, social organizations, governments of different types

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Determinants of Smallholder Livestock Farmers’ Household Resilience to Food Insecurity in South Africa
Climate 2021, 9(7), 117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9070117 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 652
Abstract
This study identified factors affecting livestock farmers’ agricultural drought resilience to food insecurity in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Data of 217 smallholder livestock farmers were used in a principal component analysis to estimate the agricultural drought resilience index. The structural equation approach [...] Read more.
This study identified factors affecting livestock farmers’ agricultural drought resilience to food insecurity in Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Data of 217 smallholder livestock farmers were used in a principal component analysis to estimate the agricultural drought resilience index. The structural equation approach was then applied to assess smallholder livestock farmers’ resilience to food insecurity. The study found that most smallholder livestock farmers (81%) were not resilient to agricultural drought. Assets (β = 0.150), social safety nets (β = 0.001), and adaptive capacity (β = 0.171) indicators positively impacted households’ resilience to food insecurity with 5% significance. Climate change indicators negatively impacted households’ resilience to food insecurity. Two variables were included under climate change, focusing on drought, namely drought occurrence (β = −0.118) and drought intensity (β = −0.021), which had a negative impact on household resilience to food insecurity with 10% significance. The study suggests that smallholder livestock farmers need assistance from the government and various stakeholders to minimize vulnerability and boost their resilience to food insecurity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Article
Impact of Climate Change on Crop Production and Potential Adaptive Measures in the Olifants Catchment, South Africa
Climate 2021, 9(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli9010006 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1250
Abstract
Climate change is expected to substantially reduce future crop yields in South Africa, thus affecting food security and livelihood. Adaptation strategies need to be implemented to mitigate the effect of climate change-induced yield losses. In this paper, we used the WEAP-MABIA model, driven [...] Read more.
Climate change is expected to substantially reduce future crop yields in South Africa, thus affecting food security and livelihood. Adaptation strategies need to be implemented to mitigate the effect of climate change-induced yield losses. In this paper, we used the WEAP-MABIA model, driven by six CORDEX climate change data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, to quantify the effect of climate change on several key crops, namely maize, soya beans, dry beans, and sunflower, in the Olifants catchment. The study further investigated climate change adaptation such as the effects of changing planting dates with the application of full irrigation, rainwater harvesting, deficit irrigation method, and the application of efficient irrigation devices on reducing the impact of climate change on crop production. The results show that average monthly temperature is expected to increase by 1 °C to 5 °C while a reduction in precipitation ranging between 2.5% to 58.7% is projected for both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 relative to the baseline climate for 1976–2005, respectively. The results also reveal that increased temperature and decreased precipitation during planting seasons are expected to increase crop water requirements. A steady decline in crop yield ranging between 19–65%, 11–38%, 16–42%, and 5–30% for maize, soya beans, dry beans, and sunflower, respectively, is also projected under both RCPs climate change scenarios. The study concludes that adaptation measures such as the integration of changing planting dates with full irrigation application and the use of rainwater harvest will help improve current and future crop production under the impact of climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Article
Impacts of Agroclimatic Variability on Maize Production in the Setsoto Municipality in the Free State Province, South Africa
Climate 2020, 8(12), 147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli8120147 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The majority of people in South Africa eat maize, which is grown as a rain-fed crop in the summer rainfall areas of the country, as their staple food. The country is usually food secure except in drought years, which are expected to increase [...] Read more.
The majority of people in South Africa eat maize, which is grown as a rain-fed crop in the summer rainfall areas of the country, as their staple food. The country is usually food secure except in drought years, which are expected to increase in severity and frequency. This study investigated the impacts of rainfall and minimum and maximum temperatures on maize yield in the Setsoto municipality of the Free State province of South Africa from 1985 to 2016. The variation of the agroclimatic variables, including the Palmer stress diversity index (PSDI), was investigated over the growing period (Oct–Apr) which varied across the four target stations (Clocolan, Senekal, Marquard and Ficksburg). The highest coefficients of variance (CV) recorded for the minimum and maximum temperatures and rainfall were 16.2%, 6.2% and 29% during the growing period. Non-parametric Mann Kendal and Sen’s slope estimator were used for the trend analysis. The result showed significant positive trends in minimum temperature across the stations except for Clocolan where a negative trend of 0.2 to 0.12 °C year−1 was observed. The maximum temperature increased significantly across all the stations by 0.04–0.05 °C year−1 during the growing period. The temperature effects were most noticeable in the months of November and February when leaf initiation and kernel filling occur, respectively. The changes in rainfall were significant only in Ficksburg in the month of January with a value of 2.34 mm year−1. Nevertheless, the rainfall showed a strong positive correlation with yield (r 0.46, p = < 0.05). The overall variation in maize production is explained by the contribution of the agroclimatic parameters; the minimum temperature (R2 0.13–0.152), maximum temperature (R2 0.214–0.432) and rainfall (R2 0.17–0.473) for the growing period across the stations during the study period. The PSDI showed dry years and wet years but with most of the years recording close to normal rainfall. An increase in both the minimum and maximum temperatures over time will have a negative impact on crop yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Article
Trends of Climate Change and Variability in Three Agro-Ecological Settings in Central Ethiopia: Contrasts of Meteorological Data and Farmers’ Perceptions
Climate 2020, 8(11), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli8110121 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Using gridded daily temperature and rainfall data covering 30 years (1988–2017), this study investigates trends in rainfall, temperature, and extreme events in three agro-ecological settings in central Ethiopia. The Mann Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator were used to examine the trends and [...] Read more.
Using gridded daily temperature and rainfall data covering 30 years (1988–2017), this study investigates trends in rainfall, temperature, and extreme events in three agro-ecological settings in central Ethiopia. The Mann Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator were used to examine the trends and slope of changes in climate indices. The profile of farmers whose perception converges with or diverges from meteorological data was characterized using polling. The average annual temperature has increased by 0.4 and 0.3 °C per decade in the lowland and midland areas, respectively. Average annual rainfall has increased only in the midland areas by 178 mm per decade. Farmers’ perception of increasing temperature fairly aligns with meteorological data. However, there is a noticeable difference between farmers’ perception of rainfall and meteorological data. The perception of farmers with poor economic status, access to media, and higher social capital aligns with measured trends. Conversely, the perception of economically better-off and uneducated farmers diverges from meteorological data. Accurate perception is constrained by the failure of the traditional forecast methods to describe complex weather variabilities and lack of access to down-scaled weather information. The findings highlight the importance of availing specific and agro-ecologically relevant weather forecasts to overcome perceptual problems and to support effective adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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Article
Impacts of Climate Change on the Water Resources of the Kunduz River Basin, Afghanistan
Climate 2020, 8(10), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cli8100102 - 23 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1998
Abstract
The Kunduz River is one of the main tributaries of the Amu Darya Basin in North Afghanistan. Many communities live in the Kunduz River Basin (KRB), and its water resources have been the basis of their livelihoods for many generations. This study investigates [...] Read more.
The Kunduz River is one of the main tributaries of the Amu Darya Basin in North Afghanistan. Many communities live in the Kunduz River Basin (KRB), and its water resources have been the basis of their livelihoods for many generations. This study investigates climate change impacts on the KRB catchment. Rare station data are, for the first time, used to analyze systematic trends in temperature, precipitation, and river discharge over the past few decades, while using Mann–Kendall and Theil–Sen trend statistics. The trends show that the hydrology of the basin changed significantly over the last decades. A comparison of landcover data of the river basin from 1992 and 2019 shows significant changes that have additional impact on the basin hydrology, which are used to interpret the trend analysis. There is considerable uncertainty due to the data scarcity and gaps in the data, but all results indicate a strong tendency towards drier conditions. An extreme warming trend, partly above 2 °C since the 1960s in combination with a dramatic precipitation decrease by more than −30% lead to a strong decrease in river discharge. The increasing glacier melt compensates the decreases and leads to an increase in runoff only in the highland parts of the upper catchment. The reduction of water availability and the additional stress on the land leads to a strong increase of barren land and a reduction of vegetation cover. The detected trends and changes in the basin hydrology demand an active management of the already scarce water resources in order to sustain water supply for agriculture and ecosystems in the KRB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Food Insecurity)
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