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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2020) – 66 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The GeoBIM benchmark evaluated the state of the implementation of tools addressing the interoperability of CityGML 3D city models and IFC BIM. External participants contributed to the study by testing familiar and interesting tools. This paper describes the part of the benchmark results regarding the georeferencing of IFC models and the ability of tools to make consistent conversions between CityGML and IFC. From the analysis of the delivered answers and processed datasets, it is notable that, while there are tools available to support georeferencing and data conversion, clear rules to perform these two tasks, as well as solid technological solutions, are still lacking in functionalities. The identified issues can be sensible starting points for planning the next GeoBIM integration agendas, as well as the development of related standards and tools. View this paper
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Review
The Spatial Dimension of COVID-19: The Potential of Earth Observation Data in Support of Slum Communities with Evidence from Brazil
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090557 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3242
Abstract
The COVID-19 health emergency is impacting all of our lives, but the living conditions and urban morphologies found in poor communities make inhabitants more vulnerable to the COVID-19 outbreak as compared to the formal city, where inhabitants have the resources to follow WHO [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 health emergency is impacting all of our lives, but the living conditions and urban morphologies found in poor communities make inhabitants more vulnerable to the COVID-19 outbreak as compared to the formal city, where inhabitants have the resources to follow WHO guidelines. In general, municipal spatial datasets are not well equipped to support spatial responses to health emergencies, particularly in poor communities. In such critical situations, Earth observation (EO) data can play a vital role in timely decision making and can save many people’s lives. This work provides an overview of the potential of EO-based global and local datasets, as well as local data gathering procedures (e.g., drones), in support of COVID-19 responses by referring to two slum areas in Salvador, Brazil as a case study. We discuss the role of datasets as well as data gaps that hinder COVID-19 responses. In Salvador and other low- and middle-income countries’ (LMICs) cities, local data are available; however, they are not up to date. For example, depending on the source, the population of the study areas in 2020 varies by more than 20%. Thus, EO data integration can help in updating local datasets and in the acquisition of physical parameters of poor urban communities, which are often not systematically collected in local surveys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Spatial Components of COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Spatial Interaction Effect of Population Density Patterns in Sub-Districts of Northeastern Thailand
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090556 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
The north-eastern region in Thailand is the largest in area and population. Its average income per capita is, however, the lowest in Thailand. This phenomenon leads to migration to big cities, which are considered economic centres. We investigated the effect of spatial interaction [...] Read more.
The north-eastern region in Thailand is the largest in area and population. Its average income per capita is, however, the lowest in Thailand. This phenomenon leads to migration to big cities, which are considered economic centres. We investigated the effect of spatial interaction on the population density pattern in 20 provinces in north-eastern Thailand. Data was obtained from the compilation and preparation of the demographic data of 2676 sub-districts for 2002–2017. A field survey was conducted through GPS at educational institutions, hospitals, airports, government offices, and shopping malls. The data was analysed using spatial autocorrelation analysis by a global indicator (global Moran’s I) and a local indicator (local Moran’s I and Getis–Ord Gi*). Eight Mueang districts exhibited the high-high (H-H) cluster pattern or hot spot at an increasing yearly rate. In addition, the area with the highest gravity was located near service sources and was found to have the largest population. Moreover, gravity interaction with service sources had a strong positive correlation with migration patterns. Thus, the cluster of areas with the greatest population density is located within the Mueang district in one of the provinces with most service sources, as these places attract people and consequently industrial factories and service trades. Full article
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Article
Visit Probability in Space–Time Prisms Based on Binomial Random Walk
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090555 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Space–time prisms are used to model the uncertainty of space–time locations of moving objects between (for instance, GPS-measured) sample points. However, not all space–time points in a prism are equally likely and we propose a simple, formal model for the so-called “visit probability” [...] Read more.
Space–time prisms are used to model the uncertainty of space–time locations of moving objects between (for instance, GPS-measured) sample points. However, not all space–time points in a prism are equally likely and we propose a simple, formal model for the so-called “visit probability” of space–time points within prisms. The proposed mathematical framework is based on a binomial random walk within one- and two-dimensional space–time prisms. Without making any assumptions on the random walks (we do not impose any distribution nor introduce any bias towards the second anchor point), we arrive at the conclusion that binomial random walk-based visit probability in space–time prisms corresponds to a hypergeometric distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Dynamics Research in the Age of Smart and Intelligent Systems)
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Article
The City of Tomorrow from… the Data of Today
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090554 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
In urban planning, a common unit of measure for housing density is the number of households per hectare. However, the actual size of the physical space occupied by a household, i.e., a dwelling, is seldom considered, neither in 2D nor in 3D. This [...] Read more.
In urban planning, a common unit of measure for housing density is the number of households per hectare. However, the actual size of the physical space occupied by a household, i.e., a dwelling, is seldom considered, neither in 2D nor in 3D. This article proposes a methodology to estimate the average size of a dwelling in existing urban areas from available open data, and to use it as one of the design parameters for new urban-development projects. The proposed unit of measure, called “living space”, includes outdoor and indoor spaces. The idea is to quantitatively analyze the city of today to help design the city of tomorrow. First, the “typical”-dwelling size and a series of Key Performance Indicators are computed for all neighborhoods from a semantic 3D city model and other spatial and non-spatial datasets. A limited number of neighborhoods is selected based on their similarities with the envisioned development plan. The size of the living space of the selected neighborhoods is successively used as a design parameter to support the computer-assisted generation of several design proposals. Each proposal can be exported, shared, and visualized online. As a test case, a to-be-planned neighborhood in Amsterdam, called “Sloterdijk One”, has been chosen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Applications of 3D-City Models in Urban Studies)
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Article
Random Forest-Based Landslide Susceptibility Mapping in Coastal Regions of Artvin, Turkey
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 553; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090553 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Natural disasters such as landslides often occur in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey owing to its geological, topographical, and climatic characteristics. Landslide events occur nearly every year in the Arhavi, Hopa, and Kemalpaşa districts located on the Black Sea coast in [...] Read more.
Natural disasters such as landslides often occur in the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey owing to its geological, topographical, and climatic characteristics. Landslide events occur nearly every year in the Arhavi, Hopa, and Kemalpaşa districts located on the Black Sea coast in the Artvin province. In this study, the landslide susceptibility map of the Arhavi, Hopa, and Kemalpaşa districts was produced using the random forest (RF) model, which is widely used in the literature and yields more accurate results compared with other machine learning techniques. A total of 10 landslide-conditioning factors were considered for the susceptibility analysis, i.e., lithology, land cover, slope, aspect, elevation, curvature, topographic wetness index, and distances from faults, drainage networks, and roads. Furthermore, 70% of the landslides on the landslide inventory map were used for training, and the remaining 30% were used for validation. The RF-based model was validated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Evaluation results indicated that the success and prediction rates of the model were 98.3% and 97.7%, respectively. Moreover, it was determined that incorrect land-use decisions, such as transforming forest areas into tea and hazelnut cultivation areas, induce the occurrence of landslides. Full article
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Article
Earth Observation and GIS-Based Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility and Risk Assessment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090552 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Landslides can cause severe problems to the social and economic well-being. In order to effectively mitigate landslide hazards, the development of detailed susceptibility maps is required, towards implementing targeted risk management plans. This study aims to create detailed landslide susceptibility (LS) and landslide [...] Read more.
Landslides can cause severe problems to the social and economic well-being. In order to effectively mitigate landslide hazards, the development of detailed susceptibility maps is required, towards implementing targeted risk management plans. This study aims to create detailed landslide susceptibility (LS) and landslide risk (LR) maps of the Sperchios River basin by applying an expert semi-quantitative approach that integrates the Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based multicriteria analysis and Earth Observation (EO) data. Adopting the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for a weighted linear combination (WLC) approach, eleven evaluation parameters were selected. The results were validated using a historic landslide database, enriched with new landslide locations mapped by satellite and aerial imagery interpretation and field surveys. Moreover, the landslide risk map of the area was also developed, based on the LS delineation, considering additionally the anthropogenic exposure and overall vulnerability of the area. The results showed that the most susceptible areas are located at the west and south-west regions of the basin. The synergistic use of GIS-based analysis and EO data can provide a useful tool for the design of natural hazards prevention policy at highly susceptible to risk landslide risk areas. Full article
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Review
GIS-Based Emotional Computing: A Review of Quantitative Approaches to Measure the Emotion Layer of Human–Environment Relationships
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 551; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090551 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
In recent years, with the growing accessibility of abundant contextual emotion information, which is benefited by the numerous georeferenced user-generated content and the maturity of artificial intelligence (AI)-based emotional computing technics, the emotion layer of human–environment relationship is proposed for enriching traditional methods [...] Read more.
In recent years, with the growing accessibility of abundant contextual emotion information, which is benefited by the numerous georeferenced user-generated content and the maturity of artificial intelligence (AI)-based emotional computing technics, the emotion layer of human–environment relationship is proposed for enriching traditional methods of various related disciplines such as urban planning. This paper proposes the geographic information system (GIS)-based emotional computing concept, which is a novel framework for applying GIS methods to collective human emotion. The methodology presented in this paper consists of three key steps: (1) collecting georeferenced data containing emotion and environment information such as social media and official sites, (2) detecting emotions using AI-based emotional computing technics such as natural language processing (NLP) and computer vision (CV), and (3) visualizing and analyzing the spatiotemporal patterns with GIS tools. This methodology is a great synergy of multidisciplinary cutting-edge techniques, such as GIScience, sociology, and computer science. Moreover, it can effectively and deeply explore the connection between people and their surroundings with the help of GIS methods. Generally, the framework provides a standard workflow to calculate and analyze the new information layer for researchers, in which a measured human-centric perspective onto the environment is possible. Full article
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Article
Social Sensing for Urban Land Use Identification
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090550 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The utilization of urban land use maps can reveal the patterns of human behavior through the extraction of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of urban land use. Remote sensing that holds detailed and abundant information on spectral, textual, contextual, and spatial configurations is [...] Read more.
The utilization of urban land use maps can reveal the patterns of human behavior through the extraction of the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of urban land use. Remote sensing that holds detailed and abundant information on spectral, textual, contextual, and spatial configurations is crucial to obtaining land use maps that reveal changes in the urban environment. However, social sensing is essential to revealing the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of urban land use. This data mining approach is related to data cleaning/outlier removal and machine learning, and is used to achieve land use classification from remote and social sensing data. In bicycle and taxi density maps, the daytime destination and nighttime origin density reflects work-related land uses, including commercial and industrial areas. By contrast, the nighttime destination and daytime origin density pattern captures the pattern of residential areas. The accuracy assessment of land use classified maps shows that the integration of remote and social sensing, using the decision tree and random forest methods, yields accuracies of 83% and 86%, respectively. Thus, this approach facilitates an accurate urban land use classification. Urban land use identification can aid policy makers in linking human activities to the socioeconomic consequences of different urban land uses. Full article
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Article
A Spatial Agent-Based Model to Assess the Spread of Malaria in Relation to Anti-Malaria Interventions in Southeast Iran
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090549 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Malaria threatens the lives of many people throughout the world. To counteract its spread, knowledge of the prevalence of malaria and the effectiveness of intervention strategies is of great importance. The aim of this study was to assess (1) the spread of malaria [...] Read more.
Malaria threatens the lives of many people throughout the world. To counteract its spread, knowledge of the prevalence of malaria and the effectiveness of intervention strategies is of great importance. The aim of this study was to assess (1) the spread of malaria by means of a spatial agent-based model (ABM) and (2) the effectiveness of several interventions in controlling the spread of malaria. We focused on Sarbaz county in Iran, a malaria-endemic area where the prevalence rate is high. Our ABM, which was carried out in two steps, considers humans and mosquitoes along with their attributes and behaviors as agents, while the environment is made up of diverse environmental factors, namely air temperature, relative humidity, vegetation, altitude, distance from rivers and reservoirs, and population density, the first three of which change over time. As control interventions, we included long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The simulation results showed that applying LLINs and IRS in combination, rather than separately, was most efficient in reducing the number of infected humans. In addition, LLINs and IRS with moderate or high and high coverage rates, respectively, had significant effects on reducing the number of infected humans when applied separately. Our results can assist health policymakers in selecting appropriate intervention strategies in Iran to reduce malaria transmission. Full article
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Article
Monitoring of Urban Growth Patterns in Rapidly Growing Bahir Dar City of Northwest Ethiopia with 30 year Landsat Imagery Record
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 548; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090548 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Monitoring urban growth patterns is an important measure to improve our understanding of land use/land cover (LULC) changes and a central part in the proper development of any city. In this study, we analyzed the changes over a period of 30 years (1985–2015) [...] Read more.
Monitoring urban growth patterns is an important measure to improve our understanding of land use/land cover (LULC) changes and a central part in the proper development of any city. In this study, we analyzed the changes over a period of 30 years (1985–2015) in Bahir Dar, one of the rapidly growing cities of northwest Ethiopia. Satellite images of Landsat TM (1985, 1995, and 2008), and OLI (2015) were used. The classification was carried out using the object-based image analysis technique and a change analysis was undertaken using post-classification comparison in GIS as a novel framework. An accuracy assessment was conducted for each reference year. Eight LULC types were successfully captured with overall accuracies ranging from 88.3% to 92.9% and a Kappa statistic of 0.85 to 0.92. The classification result revealed that cropland (66%), water (12.5%), and grassland (6%) were the dominant LULC types with a small share of areas covered by built-up areas (2.4%) in 1985. In 2015, cropland and water continued to be dominant followed by built-up areas. The change result shows that a rapid reduction in natural forest cover followed by grassland and wetland occurred between the first (1985–1995), second (1995–2008), and third (2008–2015) study periods. On the contrary, build-ups increased in all three periods by 9.3%, 121.3%, and 44.8%, respectively. Although the conversion between the LULC classes varied substantially, analysis of the 30-year change matrix revealed that about 31% was subject to intensive change between the classes. Specifically, the built-up area has increased by 250.5% during the study years. The framed approach used in this research is a good repeatable example of how to assess and monitor urban growth at the local level, by combining remote sensing and GIS technologies. Further study is suggested to investigate detailed drivers, consequences of changes, and future options. Full article
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Article
Assessment and Mapping of Spatio-Temporal Variations in Human Mortality-Related Parameters at European Scale
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 547; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090547 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Research efforts focusing on better understanding and capture of mortality progression over the time are considered to be of significant interest in the field of demography. On a demographic basis, mortality can be expressed by different physical parameters. The main objective of this [...] Read more.
Research efforts focusing on better understanding and capture of mortality progression over the time are considered to be of significant interest in the field of demography. On a demographic basis, mortality can be expressed by different physical parameters. The main objective of this study is the assessment and mapping of four such parameters at the European scale, during the time period 1993–2013. Infant mortality (parameter θ), population aging (parameter ξ), and individual and population mortality due to unexpected exogenous factors/events (parameter κ and λ, respectively) are represented from these parameters. Given that their estimation is based on demographics by age and cause of death, and in order to be examined and visualized by gender, time-specific mortality and population demographic data with respect to gender, age, and cause of death was used. The resulting maps present the spatial patterns of the estimated parameters as well as their variations over the examined period for both male and female populations of 22 European countries in all. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Analysis for Quality of Life and Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
Identification and Geographic Distribution of Accommodation and Catering Centers
by and
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 546; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090546 - 14 Sep 2020
Viewed by 870
Abstract
As the most important manifestation of the activities of the life service industry, the reasonable layout of spatial agglomeration and dispersion of the accommodation and catering industry plays an important role in guiding the spatial structure of the urban industry and population. Applying [...] Read more.
As the most important manifestation of the activities of the life service industry, the reasonable layout of spatial agglomeration and dispersion of the accommodation and catering industry plays an important role in guiding the spatial structure of the urban industry and population. Applying the contour tree and location quotient index methods, based on points of interest (POI) data of the accommodation and catering industry in Beijing and on the identification of the spatial structure and cluster center of the accommodation and catering industry, we investigated the distribution and agglomeration characteristics of the urban accommodation and catering industry from the perspective of industrial spatial differentiation. The results show that: (1) the accommodation and catering industry in Beijing presents a polycentric agglomeration pattern in space, mainly distributed within a radius of 20 km from the city center and on a relatively large scale; areas beyond this distance contain isolated single cluster centers. (2) From the perspective of the industry, the cluster centers close to the core area of the city are characterized by the agglomeration of multiple advantageous industries, while those in the outer suburbs of the city are more prominent in a single industry. (3) From the perspective of the location quotient of cluster centers, the leisure catering industries are mainly located close to the urban centers. On the contrary, the cluster centers in the outer suburbs and counties are relatively small and dominated by restaurants and fast food industries. Commercial accommodation businesses are mainly distributed in the transportation hub centers and in entertainment and leisure areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
Drift Invariant Metric Quality Control of Construction Sites Using BIM and Point Cloud Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 545; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090545 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Construction site monitoring is currently performed through visual inspections and costly selective measurements. Due to the small overhead in construction projects, additional resources are scarce to frequently conduct a metric quality assessment of the constructed objects. However, contradictory, construction projects are characterised by [...] Read more.
Construction site monitoring is currently performed through visual inspections and costly selective measurements. Due to the small overhead in construction projects, additional resources are scarce to frequently conduct a metric quality assessment of the constructed objects. However, contradictory, construction projects are characterised by high failure costs which are often caused by erroneously constructed structural objects. With the upcoming use of periodic remote sensing during the different phases of the building process, new possibilities arise to advance from a selective quality analysis to an in-depth assessment of the full construction site. In this work, a novel methodology is presented to rapidly evaluate a large number of built objects on a construction site. Given a point cloud and a set of as-design BIM elements, our method evaluates the deviations between both datasets and computes the positioning errors of each object. Unlike the current state of the art, our method computes the error vectors regardless of drift, noise, clutter and (geo)referencing errors, leading to a better detection rate. The main contributions are the efficient matching of both datasets, the drift invariant metric evaluation and the intuitive visualisation of the results. The proposed analysis facilitates the identification of construction errors early on in the process, hence significantly lowering the failure costs. The application is embedded in native BIM software and visualises the objects by a simple color code, providing an intuitive indicator for the positioning accuracy of the built objects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Indoor Mapping and Modelling)
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Article
Mapping Brick Kilns to Support Environmental Impact Studies around Delhi Using Sentinel-2
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 544; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090544 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1765
Abstract
Cities lying in the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia have the world’s worst anthropogenic air pollution, which is often attributed to urban growth. Brick kilns, facilities for producing fired clay-bricks for construction are often found at peri-urban region of South Asian cities. Although [...] Read more.
Cities lying in the Indo-Gangetic plains of South Asia have the world’s worst anthropogenic air pollution, which is often attributed to urban growth. Brick kilns, facilities for producing fired clay-bricks for construction are often found at peri-urban region of South Asian cities. Although brick kilns are significant air pollutant emitters, their contribution in under-represented in air pollution emission inventories due to unavailability of their distribution. This research overcomes this gap by proposing publicly available remote sensing dataset based approach for mapping brick-kiln locations using object detection and pixel classification. As brick kiln locations are not permanent, an open-dataset based methodology is advantageous for periodically updating their locations. Brick kilns similar to Bull Trench Kilns were identified using the Sentinel-2 imagery around the state of Delhi in India. The unique geometric and spectral features of brick kilns distinguish them from other classes such as built-up, vegetation and fallow-land even in coarse resolution imagery. For object detection, transfer learning was used to overcome the requirement of huge training datasets, while for pixel-classification random forest algorithm was used. The method achieved a recall of 0.72, precision of 0.99 and F1 score of 0.83. Overall 1564 kilns were detected, which are substantially higher than what was reported in an earlier study over the same region. We find that brick kilns are located outside urban areas in proximity to outwardly expanding built-up areas and tall built structures. Duration of brick kiln operation was also estimated by analyzing the time-series of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over the brick kiln locations. The brick kiln locations can be further used for updating land-use emission inventories to assess particulate matter and black carbon emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Article
Mapping of Intrusive Complex on a Small Scale Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing Images
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 543; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090543 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 702
Abstract
Multi-stage intrusive complex mapping plays an important role in regional mineralization research. The similarity of lithology characteristics between different stages of intrusions necessitates the use of richer spectral bands, while higher spatial resolution is also essential in small-scale research. In this paper, a [...] Read more.
Multi-stage intrusive complex mapping plays an important role in regional mineralization research. The similarity of lithology characteristics between different stages of intrusions necessitates the use of richer spectral bands, while higher spatial resolution is also essential in small-scale research. In this paper, a multi-source remote sensing data application method was proposed. This method includes a spectral synergy process based on statistical regression and a fusion process using Gram–Schmidt (GS) spectral sharpening. We applied the method with Gaofen-2 (GF2), Sentinel-2, and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data to the mapping of the Mountain Sanfeng intrusive complex in northwest China in which Carboniferous intrusions have been proven to be directly related to the formation of Au deposits in the area. The band ratio (BR) and relative absorption band depth (RBD) were employed to enhance the spectral differences between two stage intrusions, and the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) false colour of the BR and RBD enhancement images performed well in the west and centre. Excellent enhancement results were obtained by making full use of all bands of the synergistic image and using the Band Ratio Matrix (BRM)-Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method in the northeast part of the study area. A crucial improvement in enhancement performance by the GS fusion process and spectral synergy process was thus shown. An accurate mapping result was obtained at the Mountain Sanfeng intrusive complex. This method could support small-scale regional geological survey and mineralization research in this region. Full article
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Article
Divergent Sensitivities of Spaceborne Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence to Drought among Different Seasons and Regions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090542 - 09 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 784
Abstract
As a newly emerging satellite form of data, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provides a direct measurement of photosynthetic activity. The potential of SIF for drought assessment in different grassland ecosystems is not yet clear. In this study, the correlations between spaceborne SIF and [...] Read more.
As a newly emerging satellite form of data, solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provides a direct measurement of photosynthetic activity. The potential of SIF for drought assessment in different grassland ecosystems is not yet clear. In this study, the correlations between spaceborne SIF and nine drought indices were evaluated. Standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at a 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 month scale, Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), soil moisture, temperature condition index (TCI), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were evaluated. The relationships between different grassland types and different seasons were compared, and the driving forces affecting the sensitivity of SIF to drought were explored. We found that the correlations between SIF and drought indices were different for temperate grasslands and alpine grasslands. The correlation coefficients between SIF and soil moisture were the highest (the mean value was 0.72 for temperate grasslands and 0.69 for alpine grasslands), followed by SPEI and PDSI at a three month scale, and the correlation coefficient between SIF and TCI was the lowest (the mean value was 0.38 for both temperate and alpine grasslands). Spaceborne SIF is more effective for drought monitoring during the peak period of the growing season (July and August). Temperature and radiation are important factors affecting the sensitivity of SIF to drought. The results from this study demonstrated the importance of SIF in drought monitoring especially for temperate grasslands in the peak growing season. Full article
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Article
Spatial Analysis of Settlement Structures to Identify Pattern Formation Mechanisms in Inter-Urban Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 541; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090541 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Dissipative structures known from non-equilibrium thermodynamics can form patterns. Cities are regarded as open, dissipative structures due to their self-organisation and thus in theory are also capable of pattern formation. In a first step to understand similarities between nonlinear pattern formation and inter-urban [...] Read more.
Dissipative structures known from non-equilibrium thermodynamics can form patterns. Cities are regarded as open, dissipative structures due to their self-organisation and thus in theory are also capable of pattern formation. In a first step to understand similarities between nonlinear pattern formation and inter-urban systems, we investigate how inter-urban structures are arranged. We use data from the Global Urban Footprint to identify spatial regularities in seven regions (Argentina, China, Egypt, France, India, Ghana and USA) and to quantitatively describe settlement patterns by number of objects and density. We find that small areas of the examined data sets show a regular arrangement, the density and number of settlements differ widely between the different regions and the portion of regular areas within this regions strongly correlates with these two parameters. The results can be used to develop mathematical models that describe inter-urban pattern formation on the one hand and to investigate to what extent the respective settlement patterns are related to infrastructural, economic or political boundary conditions on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodata Science and Spatial Analysis in Urban Studies)
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Article
Examining Hotspots of Traffic Collisions and their Spatial Relationships with Land Use: A GIS-Based Geographically Weighted Regression Approach for Dammam, Saudi Arabia
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090540 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Examining the relationships between vehicle crash patterns and urban land use is fundamental to improving crash predictions, creating guidance, and comprehensive policy recommendations to avoid crash occurrences and mitigate their severities. In the existing literature, statistical models are frequently used to quantify the [...] Read more.
Examining the relationships between vehicle crash patterns and urban land use is fundamental to improving crash predictions, creating guidance, and comprehensive policy recommendations to avoid crash occurrences and mitigate their severities. In the existing literature, statistical models are frequently used to quantify the association between crash outcomes and available explanatory variables. However, they are unable to capture the latent spatial heterogeneity accurately. Further, the vast majority of previous studies have focused on detailed spatial analysis of crashes from an aggregated viewpoint without considering the attributes of the built environment and land use. This study first uses geographic information systems (GIS) to examine crash hotspots based on two severity groups, seven prevailing crash causes, and three predominant crash types in the City of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). GIS-based geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis technique was then utilized to uncover the spatial relationships of traffic collisions with population densities and relate it to the land use of each neighborhood. Results showed that Fatal and Injury (FI) crashes were mostly located in residential neighborhoods and near public facilities having low to medium population densities on highways with relatively higher speed limits. Distribution of hotspots and GWR-based analysis for crash causes showed that crashes due to “sudden lane deviation” accounted for the highest proportion of crashes that were concentrated mainly in the Central Business District (CBD) of the study area. Similarly, hotspots and GWR analysis for crash types revealed that “collisions between motor vehicles” constitute a significant proportion of the total crashes, with epicenters mostly stationed in high-density residential neighborhoods. The outcomes of this study could provide analysts and practitioners with crucial insights to understand the complex inter-relationships between traffic safety and land use. It can provide useful guidance to policymakers for better planning and effective management strategies to enhance safety at zonal levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using GIS to Improve (Public) Safety and Security)
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Article
Regional Terrain Complexity Assessment Based on Principal Component Analysis and Geographic Information System: A Case of Jiangxi Province, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 539; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090539 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1080
Abstract
Regional terrain complexity assessment (TCA) is an important theoretical foundation for geological feature identification, hydrological information extraction and land resources utilization. However, the previous TCA models have many disadvantages; for example, comprehensive consideration and redundancy information analysis of terrain factors is lacking, and [...] Read more.
Regional terrain complexity assessment (TCA) is an important theoretical foundation for geological feature identification, hydrological information extraction and land resources utilization. However, the previous TCA models have many disadvantages; for example, comprehensive consideration and redundancy information analysis of terrain factors is lacking, and the terrain complexity index is difficult to quantify. To overcome these drawbacks, a TCA model based on principal component analysis (PCA) and a geographic information system (GIS) is proposed. Taking Jiangxi province of China as an example, firstly, ten terrain factors are extracted using a digital elevation model (DEM) in GIS software. Secondly, PCA is used to analyze the information redundancy of these terrain factors and deal with data compression. Then, the comprehensive evaluation of the compressed terrain factors is conducted to obtain quantitative terrain complexity indexes and a terrain complexity map (TCM). Finally, the TCM produced by the PCA method is compared with those produced by the slope-only, the variation coefficient and K-means clustering models based on the topographic map drawn by the Bureau of Land and Resources of Jiangxi province. Meanwhile, the TCM is also verified by the actual three-dimensional aerial images. Results show that the correlation coefficients between the TCMs produced by the PCA, slope-only, variable coefficient and K-means clustering models and the local topographic map are 0.894, 0.763, 0.816 and 0.788, respectively. It is concluded that the TCM of the PCA method matches well with the actual field terrain features, and the PCA method can reflect the regional terrain complexity characteristics more comprehensively and accurately when compared to the other three methods. Full article
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Article
STS: Spatial–Temporal–Semantic Personalized Location Recommendation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 538; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090538 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 818
Abstract
The rapidly growing location-based social network (LBSN) has become a promising platform for studying users’ mobility patterns. Many online applications can be built based on such studies, among which, recommending locations is of particular interest. Previous studies have shown the importance of spatial [...] Read more.
The rapidly growing location-based social network (LBSN) has become a promising platform for studying users’ mobility patterns. Many online applications can be built based on such studies, among which, recommending locations is of particular interest. Previous studies have shown the importance of spatial and temporal influences on location recommendation; however, most existing approaches build a universal spatial–temporal model for all users despite the fact that users always demonstrate heterogeneous check-in behavior patterns. In order to realize truly personalized location recommendations, we propose a Gaussian process based model for each user to systematically and non-linearly combine temporal and spatial information to predict the user’s displacement from their currently checked-in location to the next one. The locations whose distances to the user’s current checked-in location are the closest to the predicted displacement are recommended. We also propose an enhancement to take into account category information of locations for semantic-aware recommendation. A unified recommendation framework called spatial–temporal–semantic (STS) is introduced to combine displacement prediction and the semantic-aware enhancement to provide final top-N recommendation. Extensive experiments over real datasets show that the proposed STS framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art location recommendation models in terms of precision and mean reciprocal rank (MRR). Full article
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Erratum
Erratum: Ramos, F.; Trilles, S.; Torres-Sospedra, J.; Perales, F.J. New Trends in Using Augmented Reality Apps for Smart City Contexts. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 478
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090537 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...] Full article
Article
Space-Time Variation and Spatial Differentiation of COVID-19 Confirmed Cases in Hubei Province Based on Extended GWR
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090536 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Clarifying the regional transmission mechanism of COVID-19 has practical significance for effective protection. Taking 103 county-level regions of Hubei Province as an example, and taking the fastest-spreading stage of COVID-19, which lasted from 29 January 2020, to 29 February 2020, as the research [...] Read more.
Clarifying the regional transmission mechanism of COVID-19 has practical significance for effective protection. Taking 103 county-level regions of Hubei Province as an example, and taking the fastest-spreading stage of COVID-19, which lasted from 29 January 2020, to 29 February 2020, as the research period, we systematically analyzed the population migration, spatio-temporal variation pattern of COVID-19, with emphasis on the spatio-temporal differences and scale effects of related factors by using the daily sliding, time-ordered data analysis method, combined with extended geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results state that: Population migration plays a two-way role in COVID-19 variation. The emigrants’ and immigrants’ population of Wuhan city accounted for 3.70% and 73.05% of the total migrants’ population respectively; the restriction measures were not only effective in controlling the emigrants, but also effective in preventing immigrants. COVID-19 has significant spatial autocorrelation, and spatio-temporal differentiation has an effect on COVID-19. Different factors have different degrees of effect on COVID-19, and similar factors show different scale effects. Generally, the pattern of spatial differentiation is a transitional pattern of parallel bands from east to west, and also an epitaxial radiation pattern centered in the Wuhan 1 + 8 urban circle. This paper is helpful to understand the spatio-temporal evolution of COVID-19 in Hubei Province, so as to provide a reference for similar epidemic prevention. Full article
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Article
Comparing Machine and Deep Learning Methods for Large 3D Heritage Semantic Segmentation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 535; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090535 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2170
Abstract
In recent years semantic segmentation of 3D point clouds has been an argument that involves different fields of application. Cultural heritage scenarios have become the subject of this study mainly thanks to the development of photogrammetry and laser scanning techniques. Classification algorithms based [...] Read more.
In recent years semantic segmentation of 3D point clouds has been an argument that involves different fields of application. Cultural heritage scenarios have become the subject of this study mainly thanks to the development of photogrammetry and laser scanning techniques. Classification algorithms based on machine and deep learning methods allow to process huge amounts of data as 3D point clouds. In this context, the aim of this paper is to make a comparison between machine and deep learning methods for large 3D cultural heritage classification. Then, considering the best performances of both techniques, it proposes an architecture named DGCNN-Mod+3Dfeat that combines the positive aspects and advantages of these two methodologies for semantic segmentation of cultural heritage point clouds. To demonstrate the validity of our idea, several experiments from the ArCH benchmark are reported and commented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Machine Learning and Deep Learning in Cultural Heritage)
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Article
Modeling Diurnal Changes in Land Surface Temperature in Urban Areas under Cloudy Conditions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 534; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090534 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Land surface temperature (LST) in urban areas is a dynamic phenomenon affected by various factors such as solar irradiance, cloudiness, wind or urban morphology. The problem complexity requires a comprehensive geographic information system (GIS)-based approach. Our solution is based on solar radiation tools, [...] Read more.
Land surface temperature (LST) in urban areas is a dynamic phenomenon affected by various factors such as solar irradiance, cloudiness, wind or urban morphology. The problem complexity requires a comprehensive geographic information system (GIS)-based approach. Our solution is based on solar radiation tools, a high-resolution digital surface model of urban areas, spatially distributed data representing thermal properties of urban surfaces and meteorological conditions. The methodology is implemented in GRASS GIS using shell scripts. In these shell scripts, the r.sun solar radiation model was used to calculate the effective solar irradiance for selected time horizons during the day. The calculation accounts for attenuation of beam solar irradiance by clouds estimated by field measurements. The suggested algorithm accounts for heat storage in urban structures depending on their thermal properties and geometric configuration. Computed land surface temperature was validated using field measurements of LST in 10 locations within the study area. The study confirmed the applicability of our approach with an acceptable accuracy expressed by the root mean square error of 3.45 K. The proposed approach has the advantage of providing high spatial detail coupled with the flexibility of GIS to evaluate various geometrical and land surface properties for any daytime horizon. Full article
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Article
Assessment of Interventions in Fuel Management Zones Using Remote Sensing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 533; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090533 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 920
Abstract
Every year, wildfires strike the Portuguese territory and are a concern for public entities and the population. To prevent a wildfire progression and minimize its impact, Fuel Management Zones (FMZs) have been stipulated, by law, around buildings, settlements, along national roads, and other [...] Read more.
Every year, wildfires strike the Portuguese territory and are a concern for public entities and the population. To prevent a wildfire progression and minimize its impact, Fuel Management Zones (FMZs) have been stipulated, by law, around buildings, settlements, along national roads, and other infrastructures. FMZs require monitoring of the vegetation condition to promptly proceed with the maintenance and cleaning of these zones. To improve FMZ monitoring, this paper proposes the use of satellite images, such as the Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2, along with vegetation indices and extracted temporal characteristics (max, min, mean and standard deviation) associated with the vegetation within and outside the FMZs and to determine if they were treated. These characteristics feed machine-learning algorithms, such as XGBoost, Support Vector Machines, K-nearest neighbors and Random Forest. The results show that it is possible to detect an intervention in an FMZ with high accuracy, namely with an F1-score ranging from 90% up to 94% and a Kappa ranging from 0.80 up to 0.89. Full article
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Article
Assessing the Reliability of Relevant Tweets and Validation Using Manual and Automatic Approaches for Flood Risk Communication
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 532; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090532 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
While Twitter has been touted as a preeminent source of up-to-date information on hazard events, the reliability of tweets is still a concern. Our previous publication extracted relevant tweets containing information about the 2013 Colorado flood event and its impacts. Using the relevant [...] Read more.
While Twitter has been touted as a preeminent source of up-to-date information on hazard events, the reliability of tweets is still a concern. Our previous publication extracted relevant tweets containing information about the 2013 Colorado flood event and its impacts. Using the relevant tweets, this research further examined the reliability (accuracy and trueness) of the tweets by examining the text and image content and comparing them to other publicly available data sources. Both manual identification of text information and automated (Google Cloud Vision, application programming interface (API)) extraction of images were implemented to balance accurate information verification and efficient processing time. The results showed that both the text and images contained useful information about damaged/flooded roads/streets. This information will help emergency response coordination efforts and informed allocation of resources when enough tweets contain geocoordinates or location/venue names. This research will identify reliable crowdsourced risk information to facilitate near real-time emergency response through better use of crowdsourced risk communication platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scaling, Spatio-Temporal Modeling, and Crisis Informatics)
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Article
Understanding Completeness and Diversity Patterns of OSM-Based Land-Use and Land-Cover Dataset in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 531; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090531 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 765
Abstract
OpenStreetMap (OSM) data are considered essential for land-use and land-cover (LULC) mapping despite their lack of quality. Most relevant studies have employed an LULC reference dataset for quality assessment, but such a reference dataset is not freely available for most countries and regions. [...] Read more.
OpenStreetMap (OSM) data are considered essential for land-use and land-cover (LULC) mapping despite their lack of quality. Most relevant studies have employed an LULC reference dataset for quality assessment, but such a reference dataset is not freely available for most countries and regions. Thus, this study conducts an intrinsic quality assessment of the OSM-based LULC dataset (i.e., without using a reference LULC dataset) by examining the patterns of both its completeness and diversity. With China chosen as the study area, an OSM-based LULC dataset of the country was first generated and validated by using various accuracy measures. Both its completeness and diversity patterns were then mapped and analyzed in terms of each prefecture-level division of the country. The results showed the following: (1) While the overall accuracy was as high as 82.2%, most complete regions of China were not mapped well owing to a lack of diverse LULC classes. (2) In terms of socioeconomic factors and the number of contributors, higher correlations were noted for diversity patterns than completeness patterns; thus, the diversity pattern is a better reflection of socioeconomic factors and the spatial patterns of contributors. (3) Both the completeness and the diversity patterns can be combined to better understand an OSM-based LULC dataset. These results indicate that it is useful to consider diversity as a supplement for intrinsically assessing the quality of an OSM-based LULC dataset. This analytical method can also be applied to other countries and regions. Full article
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Article
An Integrated Spatiotemporal Pattern Analysis Model to Assess and Predict the Degradation of Protected Forest Areas
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 530; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090530 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1180
Abstract
Forest degradation is considered to be one of the major threats to forests over the globe, which has considerably increased in recent decades. Forests are gradually getting fragmented and facing biodiversity losses because of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Future prediction of forest [...] Read more.
Forest degradation is considered to be one of the major threats to forests over the globe, which has considerably increased in recent decades. Forests are gradually getting fragmented and facing biodiversity losses because of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Future prediction of forest degradation spatiotemporal dynamics and fragmentation is imperative for generating a framework that can aid in prioritizing forest conservation and sustainable management practices. In this study, a random forest algorithm was developed and applied to a series of Landsat images of 1998, 2008, and 2018, to delineate spatiotemporal forest cover status in the sanctuary, along with the predictive model viz. the Cellular Automata Markov Chain for simulating a 2028 forest cover scenario in Shoolpaneshwar Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS), Gujarat, India. The model’s predicting ability was assessed using a series of accuracy indices. Moreover, spatial pattern analysis—with the use of FRAGSTATS 4.2 software—was applied to the generated and predicted forest cover classes, to determine forest fragmentation in SWS. Change detection analysis showed an overall decrease in dense forest and a subsequent increase in the open and degraded forests. Several fragmentation metrics were quantified at patch, class, and landscape level, which showed trends reflecting a decrease in fragmentation in forest areas of SWS for the period 1998 to 2028. The improvement in SWS can be attributed to the enhanced forest management activities led by the government, for the protection and conservation of the sanctuary. To our knowledge, the present study is one of the few focusing on exploring and demonstrating the added value of the synergistic use of the Cellular Automata Markov Chain Model Coupled with Fragmentation Statistics in forest degradation analysis and prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Analysis for Quality of Life and Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
Implementation and Evaluation of a Fast Area Feature Labeling Method Using Auxiliary Lines
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 529; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090529 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1775
Abstract
Appropriate place labels, which provide the name or attribute of a graphical feature, are important in geographical information systems and cartography. Herein, an internal label placement method was proposed for area features, such as cities, prefectures, and lakes, on a map. For internal [...] Read more.
Appropriate place labels, which provide the name or attribute of a graphical feature, are important in geographical information systems and cartography. Herein, an internal label placement method was proposed for area features, such as cities, prefectures, and lakes, on a map. For internal label placement, placing a large label for an extremely narrow or small area, such that the label does not protrude from the corresponding area is challenging. In such cases, a label can overlap with protruding labels from other areas. Meanwhile, tablet devices have been rapidly employed in recent years. Because tablet devices can easily zoom in on a map, it is possible to eliminate the overlaps by enlarging the map without changing the label size. Therefore, we proposed a method that enables real-time processing, even on tablet devices. The label positions are determined by detecting the intersections of the auxiliary and boundary lines of a given area feature. The proposed method adequately labels the positions of area features, even those with indents and narrow sections. Moreover, it can find tens of thousands of label positions within 100 ms, even on low-performance computers, such as tablet devices. Full article
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Article
Utilizing Airborne LiDAR and UAV Photogrammetry Techniques in Local Geoid Model Determination and Validation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090528 - 02 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1047
Abstract
This investigation evaluates the performance of digital terrain models (DTMs) generated in different vertical datums by aerial LiDAR and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry techniques, for the determination and validation of local geoid models. Many engineering projects require the point heights referring to [...] Read more.
This investigation evaluates the performance of digital terrain models (DTMs) generated in different vertical datums by aerial LiDAR and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry techniques, for the determination and validation of local geoid models. Many engineering projects require the point heights referring to a physical surface, i.e., geoid, rather than an ellipsoid. When a high-accuracy local geoid model is available in the study area, the physical heights are practically obtained with the transformation of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) ellipsoidal heights of the points. Besides the commonly used geodetic methods, this study introduces a novel approach for the determination and validation of the local geoid surface models using photogrammetry. The numeric tests were carried out in the Bergama region, in the west of Turkey. Using direct georeferenced airborne LiDAR and indirect georeferenced UAV photogrammetry-derived point clouds, DTMs were generated in ellipsoidal and geoidal vertical datums, respectively. After this, the local geoid models were calculated as differences between the generated DTMs. Generated local geoid models in the grid and pointwise formats were tested and compared with the regional gravimetric geoid model (TG03) and a high-resolution global geoid model (EIGEN6C4), respectively. In conclusion, the applied approach provided sufficient performance for modeling and validating the geoid heights with centimeter-level accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research Based on Multi-Dimensional Point Cloud Analysis)
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